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تفسير Commentary
وليم ماكدونالد
وليم مارش
Matthew Henry

صموئيل الثاني [12] 2Samuel
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Chapter Summary
1 فَأَرْسَلَ الرَّبُّ نَاثَانَ إِلَى دَاوُدَ. فَجَاءَ إِلَيْهِ وَقَالَ لَهُ: «كَانَ رَجُلاَنِ فِي مَدِينَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ، وَاحِدٌ مِنْهُمَا غَنِيٌّ وَالآخَرُ فَقِيرٌ.1 And the LORD sent Nathan unto David. And he came unto him, and said unto him, There were two men in one city; the one rich, and the other poor.
2 وَكَانَ لِلْغَنِيِّ غَنَمٌ وَبَقَرٌ كَثِيرَةٌ جِدًّا.2 The rich man had exceeding many flocks and herds:
3 وَأَمَّا الْفَقِيرُ فَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ شَيْءٌ إِلاَّ نَعْجَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ صَغِيرَةٌ قَدِ اقْتَنَاهَا وَرَبَّاهَا وَكَبِرَتْ مَعَهُ وَمَعَ بَنِيهِ جَمِيعًا. تَأْكُلُ مِنْ لُقْمَتِهِ وَتَشْرَبُ مِنْ كَأْسِهِ وَتَنَامُ فِي حِضْنِهِ، وَكَانَتْ لَهُ كَابْنَةٍ.3 But the poor man had nothing, save one little ewe lamb, which he had bought and nourished up: and it grew up together with him, and with his children; it did eat of his own meat, and drank of his own cup, and lay in his bosom, and was unto him as a daughter.
4 فَجَاءَ ضَيْفٌ إِلَى الرَّجُلِ الْغَنِيِّ، فَعَفَا أَنْ يَأْخُذَ مِنْ غَنَمِهِ وَمِنْ بَقَرِهِ لِيُهَيِّئَ لِلضَّيْفِ الَّذِي جَاءَ إِلَيْهِ، فَأَخَذَ نَعْجَةَ الرَّجُلِ الْفَقِيرِ وَهَيَّأَ لِلرَّجُلِ الَّذِي جَاءَ إِلَيْهِ». 4 And there came a traveler unto the rich man, and he spared to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to dress for the wayfaring man that was come unto him; but took the poor man's lamb, and dressed it for the man that was come to him.
5 فَحَمِيَ غَضَبُ دَاوُدَ عَلَى الرَّجُلِ جِدًّا، وَقَالَ لِنَاثَانَ: «حَيٌّ هُوَ الرَّبُّ، إِنَّهُ يُقْتَلُ الرَّجُلُ الْفَاعِلُ ذلِكَ،5 And David's anger was greatly kindled against the man; and he said to Nathan, As the LORD liveth, the man that hath done this thing shall surely die:
6 وَيَرُدُّ النَّعْجَةَ أَرْبَعَةَ أَضْعَافٍ لأَنَّهُ فَعَلَ هذَا الأَمْرَ وَلأَنَّهُ لَمْ يُشْفِقْ».6 And he shall restore the lamb fourfold, because he did this thing, and because he had no pity.
7 فَقَالَ نَاثَانُ لِدَاوُدَ: «أَنْتَ هُوَ الرَّجُلُ! هكَذَا قَالَ الرَّبُّ إِلهُ إِسْرَائِيلَ: أَنَا مَسَحْتُكَ مَلِكًا عَلَى إِسْرَائِيلَ وَأَنْقَذْتُكَ مِنْ يَدِ شَاوُلَ،7 And Nathan said to David, Thou art the man. Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, I anointed thee king over Israel, and I delivered thee out of the hand of Saul;
8 وَأَعْطَيْتُكَ بَيْتَ سَيِّدِكَ وَنِسَاءَ سَيِّدِكَ فِي حِضْنِكَ، وَأَعْطَيْتُكَ بَيْتَ إِسْرَائِيلَ وَيَهُوذَا. وَإِنْ كَانَ ذلِكَ قَلِيلاً، كُنْتُ أَزِيدُ لَكَ كَذَا وَكَذَا.8 And I gave thee thy master's house, and thy master's wives into thy bosom, and gave thee the house of Israel and of Judah; and if that had been too little, I would moreover have given unto thee such and such things.
9 لِمَاذَا احْتَقَرْتَ كَلاَمَ الرَّبِّ لِتَعْمَلَ الشَّرَّ فِي عَيْنَيْهِ؟ قَدْ قَتَلْتَ أُورِيَّا الْحِثِّيَّ بِالسَّيْفِ، وَأَخَذْتَ امْرَأَتَهُ لَكَ امْرَأَةً، وَإِيَّاهُ قَتَلْتَ بِسَيْفِ بَنِي عَمُّونَ.9 Wherefore hast thou despised the commandment of the LORD, to do evil in his sight? thou hast killed Uriah the Hittite with the sword, and hast taken his wife to be thy wife, and hast slain him with the sword of the children of Ammon.
10 وَالآنَ لاَ يُفَارِقُ السَّيْفُ بَيْتَكَ إِلَى الأَبَدِ، لأَنَّكَ احْتَقَرْتَنِي وَأَخَذْتَ امْرَأَةَ أُورِيَّا الْحِثِّيِّ لِتَكُونَ لَكَ امْرَأَةً.10 Now therefore the sword shall never depart from thine house; because thou hast despised me, and hast taken the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be thy wife.
11 هكَذَا قَالَ الرَّبُّ: هأَنَذَا أُقِيمُ عَلَيْكَ الشَّرَّ مِنْ بَيْتِكَ، وَآخُذُ نِسَاءَكَ أَمَامَ عَيْنَيْكَ وَأُعْطِيهِنَّ لِقَرِيبِكَ، فَيَضْطَجعُ مَعَ نِسَائِكَ فِي عَيْنِ هذِهِ الشَّمْسِ.11 Thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will raise up evil against thee out of thine own house, and I will take thy wives before thine eyes, and give them unto thy neighbor, and he shall lie with thy wives in the sight of this sun.
12 لأَنَّكَ أَنْتَ فَعَلْتَ بِالسِّرِّ وَأَنَا أَفْعَلُ هذَا الأَمْرَ قُدَّامَ جَمِيعِ إِسْرَائِيلَ وَقُدَّامَ الشَّمْسِ».12 For thou didst it secretly: but I will do this thing before all Israel, and before the sun.
13 فَقَالَ دَاوُدُ لِنَاثَانَ: «قَدْ أَخْطَأْتُ إِلَى الرَّبِّ». فَقَالَ نَاثَانُ لِدَاوُدَ: «الرَّبُّ أَيْضًا قَدْ نَقَلَ عَنْكَ خَطِيَّتَكَ. لاَ تَمُوتُ.13 And David said unto Nathan, I have sinned against the LORD. And Nathan said unto David, The LORD also hath put away thy sin; thou shalt not die.
14 غَيْرَ أَنَّهُ مِنْ أَجْلِ أَنَّكَ قَدْ جَعَلْتَ بِهذَا الأَمْرِ أَعْدَاءَ الرَّبِّ يَشْمَتُونَ، فَالابْنُ الْمَوْلُودُ لَكَ يَمُوتُ».14 Howbeit, because by this deed thou hast given great occasion to the enemies of the LORD to blaspheme, the child also that is born unto thee shall surely die.
15 وَذَهَبَ نَاثَانُ إِلَى بَيْتِهِ. وَضَرَبَ الرَّبُّ الْوَلَدَ الَّذِي وَلَدَتْهُ امْرَأَةُ أُورِيَّا لِدَاوُدَ فَثَقِلَ.15 And Nathan departed unto his house. And the LORD struck the child that Uriah's wife bare unto David, and it was very sick.
16 فَسَأَلَ دَاوُدُ اللهَ مِنْ أَجْلِ الصَّبِيِّ، وَصَامَ دَاوُدُ صَوْمًا، وَدَخَلَ وَبَاتَ مُضْطَجِعًا عَلَى الأَرْضِ.16 David therefore besought God for the child; and David fasted, and went in, and lay all night upon the earth.
17 فَقَامَ شُيُوخُ بَيْتِهِ عَلَيْهِ لِيُقِيمُوهُ عَنِ الأَرْضِ فَلَمْ يَشَأْ، وَلَمْ يَأْكُلْ مَعَهُمْ خُبْزًا.17 And the elders of his house arose, and went to him, to raise him up from the earth: but he would not, neither did he eat bread with them.
18 وَكَانَ فِي الْيَوْمِ السَّابعِ أَنَّ الْوَلَدَ مَاتَ، فَخَافَ عَبِيدُ دَاوُدَ أَنْ يُخْبِرُوهُ بِأَنَّ الْوَلَدَ قَدْ مَاتَ لأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا: «هُوَذَا لَمَّا كَانَ الْوَلَدُ حَيًّا كَلَّمْنَاهُ فَلَمْ يَسْمَعْ لِصَوْتِنَا. فَكَيْفَ نَقُولُ لَهُ: قَدْ مَاتَ الْوَلَدُ؟ يَعْمَلُ أَشَرَّ!».18 And it came to pass on the seventh day, that the child died. And the servants of David feared to tell him that the child was dead: for they said, Behold, while the child was yet alive, we spake unto him, and he would not hearken unto our voice: how will he then vex himself, if we tell him that the child is dead?
19 وَرَأَى دَاوُدُ عَبِيدَهُ يَتَنَاجَوْنَ، فَفَطِنَ دَاوُدُ أَنَّ الْوَلَدَ قَدْ مَاتَ. فَقَالَ دَاوُدُ لِعَبِيدِهِ: «هَلْ مَاتَ الْوَلَدُ؟» فَقَالُوا: «مَاتَ».19 But when David saw that his servants whispered, David perceived that the child was dead: therefore David said unto his servants, Is the child dead? And they said, He is dead.
20 فَقَامَ دَاوُدُ عَنِ الأَرْضِ وَاغْتَسَلَ وَادَّهَنَ وَبَدَّلَ ثِيَابَهُ وَدَخَلَ بَيْتَ الرَّبِّ وَسَجَدَ، ثُمَّ جَاءَ إِلَى بَيْتِهِ وَطَلَبَ فَوَضَعُوا لَهُ خُبْزًا فَأَكَلَ.20 Then David arose from the earth, and washed, and anointed himself, and changed his apparel, and came into the house of the LORD, and worshipped: then he came to his own house; and when he required, they set bread before him, and he did eat.
21 فَقَالَ لَهُ عَبِيدُهُ: «مَا هذَا الأَمْرُ الَّذِي فَعَلْتَ؟ لَمَّا كَانَ الْوَلَدُ حَيًّا صُمْتَ وَبَكَيْتَ، وَلَمَّا مَاتَ الْوَلَدُ قُمْتَ وَأَكَلْتَ خُبْزًا».21 Then said his servants unto him, What thing is this that thou hast done? thou didst fast and weep for the child, while it was alive; but when the child was dead, thou didst rise and eat bread.
22 فَقَالَ: «لَمَّا كَانَ الْوَلَدُ حَيًّا صُمْتُ وَبَكَيْتُ لأَنِّي قُلْتُ: مَنْ يَعْلَمُ؟ رُبَّمَا يَرْحَمُنِي الرَّبُّ وَيَحْيَا الْوَلَدُ.22 And he said, While the child was yet alive, I fasted and wept: for I said, Who can tell whether GOD will be gracious to me, that the child may live?
23 وَالآنَ قَدْ مَاتَ، فَلِمَاذَا أَصُومُ؟ هَلْ أَقْدِرُ أَنْ أَرُدَّهُ بَعْدُ؟ أَنَا ذَاهِبٌ إِلَيْهِ وَأَمَّا هُوَ فَلاَ يَرْجعُ إِلَيَّ».23 But now he is dead, wherefore should I fast? can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he shall not return to me.
24 وَعَزَّى دَاوُدُ بَثْشَبَعَ امْرَأَتَهُ، وَدَخَلَ إِلَيْهَا وَاضْطَجَعَ مَعَهَا فَوَلَدَتِ ابْنًا، فَدَعَا اسْمَهُ سُلَيْمَانَ، وَالرَّبُّ أَحَبَّهُ،24 And David comforted Bathsheba his wife, and went in unto her, and lay with her: and she bare a son, and he called his name Solomon: and the LORD loved him.
25 وَأَرْسَلَ بِيَدِ نَاثَانَ النَّبِيِّ وَدَعَا اسْمَهُ «يَدِيدِيَّا» مِنْ أَجْلِ الرَّبِّ.25 And he sent by the hand of Nathan the prophet; and he called his name Jedidiah, because of the LORD.
26 وَحَارَبَ يُوآبُ رِبَّةَ بَنِي عَمُّونَ وَأَخَذَ مَدِينَةَ الْمَمْلَكَةِ.26 And Joab fought against Rabbah of the children of Ammon, and took the royal city.
27 وَأَرْسَلَ يُوآبُ رُسُلاً إِلَى دَاوُدَ يَقُولُ: «قَدْ حَارَبْتُ رِبَّةَ وَأَخَذْتُ أَيْضًا مَدِينَةَ الْمِيَاهِ.27 And Joab sent messengers to David, and said, I have fought against Rabbah, and have taken the city of waters.
28 فَالآنَ اجْمَعْ بَقِيَّةَ الشَّعْبِ وَانْزِلْ عَلَى الْمَدِينَةِ وَخُذْهَا لِئَلاَّ آخُذَ أَنَا الْمَدِينَةَ فَيُدْعَى بِاسْمِي عَلَيْهَا».28 Now therefore gather the rest of the people together, and encamp against the city, and take it: lest I take the city, and it be called after my name.
29 فَجَمَعَ دَاوُدُ كُلَّ الشَّعْبِ وَذَهَبَ إِلَى رِبَّةَ وَحَارَبَهَا وَأَخَذَهَا.29 And David gathered all the people together, and went to Rabbah, and fought against it, and took it.
30 وَأَخَذَ تَاجَ مَلِكِهِمْ عَنْ رَأْسِهِ، وَوَزْنُهُ وَزْنَةٌ مِنَ الذَّهَبِ مَعَ حَجَرٍ كَرِيمٍ، وَكَانَ عَلَى رَأْسِ دَاوُدَ. وَأَخْرَجَ غَنِيمَةَ الْمَدِينَةِ كَثِيرَةً جِدًّا.30 And he took their king's crown from off his head, the weight whereof was a talent of gold with the precious stones: and it was set on David's head. And he brought forth the spoil of the city in great abundance.
31 وَأَخْرَجَ الشَّعْبَ الَّذِي فِيهَا وَوَضَعَهُمْ تَحْتَ مَنَاشِيرَ وَنَوَارِجِ حَدِيدٍ وَفُؤُوسِ حَدِيدٍ وَأَمَرَّهُمْ فِي أَتُونِ الآجُرِّ، وَهكَذَا صَنَعَ بِجَمِيعِ مُدُنِ بَنِي عَمُّونَ. ثُمَّ رَجَعَ دَاوُدُ وَجَمِيعُ الشَّعْبِ إِلَى أُورُشَلِيمَ. 31 And he brought forth the people that were therein, and put them under saws, and under harrows of iron, and under axes of iron, and made them pass through the brick-kiln: and thus did he unto all the cities of the children of Ammon. So David and all the people returned unto Jerusalem.
عفا
صفح عن.... ، ترك.
آجُرّ
حجارة من الطين المشوي. القرميد أو حجر الطوب.