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تفسير Commentary
وليم ماكدونالد
وليم مارش
Matthew Henry

نحميا [5] Nehemiah
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Chapter Summary
1 وَكَانَ صُرَاخُ الشَّعْبِ وَنِسَائِهِمْ عَظِيمًا عَلَى إِخْوَتِهِمِ الْيَهُودِ.1 And there was a great cry of the people and of their wives against their brethren the Jews.
2 وَكَانَ مَنْ يَقُولُ: «بَنُونَا وَبَنَاتُنَا نَحْنُ كَثِيرُونَ. دَعْنَا نَأْخُذْ قَمْحًا فَنَأْكُلَ وَنَحْيَا».2 For there were that said, We, our sons, and our daughters, are many: therefore we take up corn for them, that we may eat, and live.
3 وَكَانَ مَنْ يَقُولُ: «حُقُولُنَا وَكُرُومُنَا وَبُيُوتُنَا نَحْنُ رَاهِنُوهَا حَتَّى نَأْخُذَ قَمْحًا فِي الْجُوعِ».3 Some also there were that said, We have mortgaged our lands, vineyards, and houses, that we might buy corn, because of the dearth.
4 وَكَانَ مَنْ يَقُولُ: «قَدِ اسْتَقْرَضْنَا فِضَّةً لِخَرَاجِ الْمَلِكِ عَلَى حُقُولِنَا وَكُرُومِنَا.4 There were also that said, We have borrowed money for the king's tribute, and that upon our lands and vineyards.
5 وَالآنَ لَحْمُنَا كَلَحْمِ إِخْوَتِنَا وَبَنُونَا كَبَنِيهِمْ، وَهَا نَحْنُ نُخْضِعُ بَنِينَا وَبَنَاتِنَا عَبِيدًا، وَيُوجَدُ مِنْ بَنَاتِنَا مُسْتَعْبَدَاتٌ، وَلَيْسَ شَيْءٌ فِي طَاقَةِ يَدِنَا، وَحُقُولُنَا وَكُرُومُنَا لِلآخَرِينَ».5 Yet now our flesh is as the flesh of our brethren, our children as their children: and, lo, we bring into bondage our sons and our daughters to be servants, and some of our daughters are brought unto bondage already: neither is it in our power to redeem them; for other men have our lands and vineyards.
6 فَغَضِبْتُ جِدًّا حِينَ سَمِعْتُ صُرَاخَهُمْ وَهذَا الْكَلاَمَ.6 And I was very angry when I heard their cry and these words.
7 فَشَاوَرْتُ قَلْبِي فِيَّ، وَبَكَّتُّ الْعُظَمَاءَ وَالْوُلاَةَ، وَقُلْتُ لَهُمْ: «إِنَّكُمْ تَأْخُذُونَ الرِّبَا كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْ أَخِيهِ». وَأَقَمْتُ عَلَيْهِمْ جَمَاعَةً عَظِيمَةً. 7 Then I consulted with myself, and I rebuked the nobles, and the rulers, and said unto them, Ye exact usury, every one of his brother. And I set a great assembly against them.
8 وَقُلْتُ لَهُمْ: «نَحْنُ اشْتَرَيْنَا إِخْوَتَنَا الْيَهُودَ الَّذِينَ بِيعُوا لِلأُمَمِ حَسَبَ طَاقَتِنَا. وَأَنْتُمْ أَيْضًا تَبِيعُونَ إِخْوَتَكُمْ فَيُبَاعُونَ لَنَا». فَسَكَتُوا وَلَمْ يَجِدُوا جَوَابًا.8 And I said unto them, We after our ability have redeemed our brethren the Jews, which were sold unto the heathen; and will ye even sell your brethren? or shall they be sold unto us? Then held they their peace, and found nothing to answer.
9 وَقُلْتُ: «لَيْسَ حَسَنًا الأَمْرُ الَّذِي تَعْمَلُونَهُ. أَمَا تَسِيرُونَ بِخَوْفِ إِلهِنَا بِسَبَبِ تَعْيِيرِ الأُمَمِ أَعْدَائِنَا؟9 Also I said, It is not good that ye do: ought ye not to walk in the fear of our God because of the reproach of the heathen our enemies?
10 وَأَنَا أَيْضًا وَإِخْوَتِي وَغِلْمَانِي أَقْرَضْنَاهُمْ فِضَّةً وَقَمْحًا. فَلْنَتْرُكْ هذَا الرِّبَا.10 I likewise, and my brethren, and my servants, might exact of them money and corn: I pray you, let us leave off this usury.
11 رُدُّوا لَهُمْ هذَا الْيَوْمَ حُقُولَهُمْ وَكُرُومَهُمْ وَزَيْتُونَهُمْ وَبُيُوتَهُمْ، وَالْجُزْءَ مِنْ مِئَةِ الْفِضَّةِ وَالْقَمْحِ وَالْخَمْرِ وَالزَّيْتِ الَّذِي تَأْخُذُونَهُ مِنْهُمْ رِبًا».11 Restore, I pray you, to them, even this day, their lands, their vineyards, their oliveyards, and their houses, also the hundredth part of the money, and of the corn, the wine, and the oil, that ye exact of them.
12 فَقَالُوا: «نَرُدُّ وَلاَ نَطْلُبُ مِنْهُمْ. هكَذَا نَفْعَلُ كَمَا تَقُولُ». فَدَعَوْتُ الْكَهَنَةَ وَاسْتَحْلَفْتُهُمْ أَنْ يَعْمَلُوا حَسَبَ هذَا الْكَلاَمِ.12 Then said they, We will restore them, and will require nothing of them; so will we do as thou sayest. Then I called the priests, and took an oath of them, that they should do according to this promise.
13 ثُمَّ نَفَضْتُ حِجْرِي وَقُلْتُ: «هكَذَا يَنْفُضُ اللهُ كُلَّ إِنْسَانٍ لاَ يُقِيمُ هذَا الْكَلاَمَ مِنْ بَيْتِهِ وَمِنْ تَعَبِهِ، وَهكَذَا يَكُونُ مَنْفُوضًا وَفَارِغًا». فَقَالَ كُلُّ الْجَمَاعَةِ: «آمِينَ». وَسَبَّحُوا الرَّبَّ. وَعَمِلَ الشَّعْبُ حَسَبَ هذَا الْكَلاَمِ. 13 Also I shook my lap, and said, So God shake out every man from his house, and from his labour, that performeth not this promise, even thus be he shaken out, and emptied. And all the congregation said, Amen, and praised the LORD. And the people did according to this promise.
14 وَأَيْضًا مِنَ الْيَوْمِ الَّذِي أُوصِيتُ فِيهِ أَنْ أَكُونَ وَالِيَهُمْ فِي أَرْضِ يَهُوذَا، مِنَ السَّنَةِ الْعِشْرِينَ إِلَى السَّنَةِ الثَّانِيَةِ وَالثَّلاَثِينَ لأَرْتَحْشَسْتَا الْمَلِكِ، اثْنَتَيْ عَشَرَةَ سَنَةً، لَمْ آكُلْ أَنَا وَلاَ إِخْوَتِي خُبْزَ الْوَالِي.14 Moreover from the time that I was appointed to be their governor in the land of Judah, from the twentieth year even unto the two and thirtieth year of Artaxerxes the king, that is, twelve years, I and my brethren have not eaten the bread of the governor.
15 وَلكِنِ الْوُلاَةُ الأَوَّلُونَ الَّذِينَ قَبْلِي ثَقَّلُوا عَلَى الشَّعْبِ، وَأَخَذُوا مِنْهُمْ خُبْزًا وَخَمْرًا، فَضْلاً عَنْ أَرْبَعِينَ شَاقِلاً مِنَ الْفِضَّةِ، حَتَّى إِنَّ غِلْمَانَهُمْ تَسَلَّطُوا عَلَى الشَّعْبِ. وَأَمَّا أَنَا فَلَمْ أَفْعَلْ هكَذَا مِنْ أَجْلِ خَوْفِ اللهِ.15 But the former governors that had been before me were chargeable unto the people, and had taken of them bread and wine, beside forty shekels of silver; yea, even their servants bare rule over the people: but so did not I, because of the fear of God.
16 وَتَمَسَّكْتُ أَيْضًا بِشُغْلِ هذَا السُّورِ، وَلَمْ أَشْتَرِ حَقْلاً. وَكَانَ جَمِيعُ غِلْمَانِي مُجْتَمِعِينَ هُنَاكَ عَلَى الْعَمَلِ.16 Yea, also I continued in the work of this wall, neither bought we any land: and all my servants were gathered thither unto the work.
17 وَكَانَ عَلَى مَائِدَتِي مِنَ الْيَهُودِ وَالْوُلاَةِ مِئَةٌ وَخَمْسُونَ رَجُلاً، فَضْلاً عَنِ الآتِينَ إِلَيْنَا مِنَ الأُمَمِ الَّذِينَ حَوْلَنَا.17 Moreover there were at my table an hundred and fifty of the Jews and rulers, beside those that came unto us from among the heathen that are about us.
18 وَكَانَ مَا يُعْمَلُ لِيَوْمٍ وَاحِدٍ ثَوْرًا وَسِتَّةَ خِرَافٍ مُخْتَارَةٍ. وَكَانَ يُعْمَلُ لِي طُيُورٌ، وَفِي كُلِّ عَشَرَةِ أَيَّامٍ كُلُّ نَوْعٍ مِنَ الْخَمْرِ بِكَثْرَةٍ. وَمَعَ هذَا لَمْ أَطْلُبْ خُبْزَ الْوَالِي، لأَنَّ الْعُبُودِيَّةَ كَانَتْ ثَقِيلَةً عَلَى هذَا الشَّعْبِ.18 Now that which was prepared for me daily was one ox and six choice sheep; also fowls were prepared for me, and once in ten days store of all sorts of wine: yet for all this required not I the bread of the governor, because the bondage was heavy upon this people.
19 اذْكُرْ لِي يَا إِلهِي لِلْخَيْرِ كُلَّ مَا عَمِلْتُ لِهذَا الشَّعْبِ.19 Think upon me, my God, for good, according to all that I have done for this people.
بَكَّتّ
عَنَّفْتُ، وبّخت بشدّة.
حجْر
حضن. الجزء من الثوب الذي يغطي البطن والفخذين.