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تفسير Commentary
وليم ماكدونالد
وليم مارش
Matthew Henry

يشوع [22] Joshua
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Chapter Summary
1 حِينَئِذٍ دَعَا يَشُوعُ الرَّأُوبَيْنِيِّينَ وَالْجَادِيِّينَ وَنِصْفَ سِبْطِ مَنَسَّى،1 Then Joshua called the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh,
2 وَقَالَ لَهُمْ: «إِنَّكُمْ قَدْ حَفِظْتُمْ كُلَّ مَا أَمَرَكُمْ بِهِ مُوسَى عَبْدُ الرَّبِّ، وَسَمِعْتُمْ صَوْتِي فِي كُلِّ مَا أَمَرْتُكُمْ بِهِ،2 And said unto them, Ye have kept all that Moses the servant of the LORD commanded you, and have obeyed my voice in all that I commanded you:
3 وَلَمْ تَتْرُكُوا إِخْوَتَكُمْ هذِهِ الأَيَّامَ الْكَثِيرَةَ إِلَى هذَا الْيَوْمِ، وَحَفِظْتُمْ مَا يُحْفَظُ، وَصِيَّةُ الرَّبِّ إِلهِكُمْ.3 Ye have not left your brethren these many days unto this day, but have kept the charge of the commandment of the LORD your God.
4 وَالآنَ قَدْ أَرَاحَ الرَّبُّ إِلهُكُمْ إِخْوَتَكُمْ كَمَا قَالَ لَهُمْ. فَانْصَرِفُوا الآنَ وَاذْهَبُوا إِلَى خِيَامِكُمْ فِي أَرْضِ مُلْكِكُمُ الَّتِي أَعْطَاكُمْ مُوسَى عَبْدُ الرَّبِّ، فِي عَبْرِ الأُرْدُنِّ.4 And now the LORD your God hath given rest unto your brethren, as he promised them: therefore now return ye, and get you unto your tents, and unto the land of your possession, which Moses the servant of the LORD gave you on the other side Jordan.
5 وَإِنَّمَا احْرِصُوا جِدًّا أَنْ تَعْمَلُوا الْوَصِيَّةَ وَالشَّرِيعَةَ الَّتِي أَمَرَكُمْ بِهَا مُوسَى عَبْدُ الرَّبِّ: أَنْ تُحِبُّوا الرَّبَّ إِلهَكُمْ، وَتَسِيرُوا فِي كُلِّ طُرُقِهِ، وَتَحْفَظُوا وَصَايَاهُ، وَتَلْصَقُوا بِهِ وَتَعْبُدُوهُ بِكُلِّ قَلْبِكُمْ وَبِكُلِّ نَفْسِكُمْ».5 But take diligent heed to do the commandment and the law, which Moses the servant of the LORD charged you, to love the LORD your God, and to walk in all his ways, and to keep his commandments, and to cleave unto him, and to serve him with all your heart and with all your soul.
6 ثُمَّ بَارَكَهُمْ يَشُوعُ وَصَرَفَهُمْ، فَذَهَبُوا إِلَى خِيَامِهِمْ.6 So Joshua blessed them, and sent them away: and they went unto their tents.
7 وَلِنِصْفِ سِبْطِ مَنَسَّى أَعْطَى مُوسَى فِي بَاشَانَ، وَأَمَّا نِصْفُهُ الآخَرُ فَأَعْطَاهُمْ يَشُوعُ مَعَ إِخْوَتِهِمْ فِي عَبْرِ الأُرْدُنِّ غَرْبًا. وَعِنْدَمَا صَرَفَهُمْ يَشُوعُ أَيْضًا إِلَى خِيَامِهِمْ بَارَكَهُمْ7 Now to the one half of the tribe of Manasseh Moses had given possession in Bashan: but unto the other half thereof gave Joshua among their brethren on this side Jordan westward. And when Joshua sent them away also unto their tents, then he blessed them,
8 وَكَلَّمَهُمْ قَائِلاً: «بِمَال كَثِيرٍ ارْجِعُوا إِلَى خِيَامِكُمْ، وَبِمَوَاشٍ كَثِيرَةٍ جِدًّا، بِفِضَّةٍ وَذَهَبٍ وَنُحَاسٍ وَحَدِيدٍ وَمَلاَبِسَ كَثِيرَةٍ جِدًّا. اِقْسِمُوا غَنِيمَةَ أَعْدَائِكُمْ مَعَ إِخْوَتِكُمْ».8 And he spake unto them, saying, Return with much riches unto your tents, and with very much cattle, with silver, and with gold, and with brass, and with iron, and with very much raiment: divide the spoil of your enemies with your brethren.
9 فَرَجَعَ بَنُو رَأُوبَيْنَ وَبَنُو جَادَ وَنِصْفُ سِبْطِ مَنَسَّى، وَذَهَبُوا مِنْ عِنْدِ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ مِنْ شِيلُوهَ الَّتِي فِي أَرْضِ كَنْعَانَ لِكَيْ يَسِيرُوا إِلَى أَرْضِ جِلْعَادَ، أَرْضِ مُلْكِهِمِ الَّتِي تَمَلَّكُوا بِهَا حَسَبَ قَوْلِ الرَّبِّ عَلَى يَدِ مُوسَى.9 And the children of Reuben and the children of Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh returned, and departed from the children of Israel out of Shiloh, which is in the land of Canaan, to go unto the country of Gilead, to the land of their possession, whereof they were possessed, according to the word of the LORD by the hand of Moses.
10 وَجَاءُوا إِلَى دَائِرَةِ الأُرْدُنِّ الَّتِي فِي أَرْضِ كَنْعَانَ. وَبَنَى بَنُو رَأُوبَيْنَ وَبَنُو جَادَ وَنِصْفُ سِبْطِ مَنَسَّى هُنَاكَ مَذْبَحًا عَلَى الأُرْدُنِّ، مَذْبَحًا عَظِيمَ الْمَنْظَرِ.10 And when they came unto the borders of Jordan, that are in the land of Canaan, the children of Reuben and the children of Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh built there an altar by Jordan, a great altar to see to.
11 فَسَمِعَ بَنُو إِسْرَائِيلَ قَوْلاً: «هُوَذَا قَدْ بَنَى بَنُو رَأُوبَيْنَ وَبَنُو جَادَ وَنِصْفُ سِبْطِ مَنَسَّى مَذْبَحًا فِي وَجْهِ أَرْضِ كَنْعَانَ، فِي دَائِرَةِ الأُرْدُنِّ مُقَابِلَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ».11 And the children of Israel heard say, Behold, the children of Reuben and the children of Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh have built an altar over against the land of Canaan, in the borders of Jordan, at the passage of the children of Israel.
12 وَلَمَّا سَمِعَ بَنُو إِسْرَائِيلَ اجْتَمَعَتْ كُلُّ جَمَاعَةِ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ فِي شِيلُوهَ لِكَيْ يَصْعَدُوا إِلَيْهِمْ لِلْحَرْبِ.12 And when the children of Israel heard of it, the whole congregation of the children of Israel gathered themselves together at Shiloh, to go up to war against them.
13 فَأَرْسَلَ بَنُو إِسْرَائِيلَ إِلَى بَنِي رَأُوبَيْنَ وَبَنِي جَادَ وَنِصْفِ سِبْطِ مَنَسَّى إِلَى أَرْضِ جِلْعَادَ، فِينَحَاسَ بْنَ أَلِعَازَارَ الْكَاهِنَ13 And the children of Israel sent unto the children of Reuben, and to the children of Gad, and to the half tribe of Manasseh, into the land of Gilead, Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest,
14 وَعَشْرَةَ رُؤَسَاءَ مَعَهُ، رَئِيسًا وَاحِدًا مِنْ كُلِّ بَيْتِ أَبٍ مِنْ جَمِيعِ أَسْبَاطِ إِسْرَائِيلَ، كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ رَئِيسُ بَيْتِ آبَائِهِمْ فِي أُلُوفِ إِسْرَائِيلَ.14 And with him ten princes, of each chief house a prince throughout all the tribes of Israel; and each one was an head of the house of their fathers among the thousands of Israel.
15 فَجَاءُوا إِلَى بَنِي رَأُوبَيْنَ وَبَنِي جَادَ وَنِصْفِ سِبْطِ مَنَسَّى إِلَى أَرْضِ جِلْعَادَ، وَكَلَّمُوهُمْ قَائِلِينَ:15 And they came unto the children of Reuben, and to the children of Gad, and to the half tribe of Manasseh, unto the land of Gilead, and they spake with them, saying,
16 «هكَذَا قَالَتْ كُلُّ جَمَاعَةِ الرَّبِّ: مَا هذِهِ الْخِيَانَةُ الَّتِي خُنْتُمْ بِهَا إِلهَ إِسْرَائِيلَ، بِالرُّجُوعِ الْيَوْمَ عَنِ الرَّبِّ، بِبُنْيَانِكُمْ لأَنْفُسِكُمْ مَذْبَحًا لِتَتَمَرَّدُوا الْيَوْمَ عَلَى الرَّبِّ؟16 Thus saith the whole congregation of the LORD, What trespass is this that ye have committed against the God of Israel, to turn away this day from following the LORD, in that ye have builded you an altar, that ye might rebel this day against the LORD?
17 أَقَلِيلٌ لَنَا إِثْمُ فَغُورَ الَّذِي لَمْ نَتَطَهَّرْ مِنْهُ إِلَى هذَا الْيَوْمِ، وَكَانَ الْوَبَأُ فِي جَمَاعَةِ الرَّبِّ،17 Is the iniquity of Peor too little for us, from which we are not cleansed until this day, although there was a plague in the congregation of the LORD,
18 حَتَّى تَرْجِعُوا أَنْتُمُ الْيَوْمَ عَنِ الرَّبِّ؟ فَيَكُونُ أَنَّكُمُ الْيَوْمَ تَتَمَرَّدُونَ عَلَى الرَّبِّ، وَهُوَ غَدًا يَسْخَطُ عَلَى كُلِّ جَمَاعَةِ إِسْرَائِيلَ.18 But that ye must turn away this day from following the LORD? and it will be, seeing ye rebel to day against the LORD, that to morrow he will be wroth with the whole congregation of Israel.
19 وَلكِنْ إِذَا كَانَتْ نَجِسَةً أَرْضُ مُلْكِكُمْ فَاعْبُرُوا إِلَى أَرْضِ مُلْكِ الرَّبِّ الَّتِي يَسْكُنُ فِيهَا مَسْكَنُ الرَّبِّ وَتَمَلَّكُوا بَيْنَنَا، وَعَلَى الرَّبِّ لاَ تَتَمَرَّدُوا، وَعَلَيْنَا لاَ تَتَمَرَّدُوا بِبِنَائِكُمْ لأَنْفُسِكُمْ مَذْبَحًا غَيْرَ مَذْبَحِ الرَّبِّ إِلهِنَا.19 Notwithstanding, if the land of your possession be unclean, then pass ye over unto the land of the possession of the LORD, wherein the LORD's tabernacle dwelleth, and take possession among us: but rebel not against the LORD, nor rebel against us, in building you an altar beside the altar of the LORD our God.
20 أَمَا خَانَ عَخَانُ بْنُ زَارَحَ خِيَانَةً فِي الْحَرَامِ، فَكَانَ السَّخَطُ عَلَى كُلِّ جَمَاعَةِ إِسْرَائِيلَ، وَهُوَ رَجُلٌ لَمْ يَهْلِكْ وَحْدَهُ بِإِثْمِهِ؟».20 Did not Achan the son of Zerah commit a trespass in the accursed thing, and wrath fell on all the congregation of Israel? and that man perished not alone in his iniquity.
21 فَأَجَابَ بَنُو رَأُوبَيْنَ وَبَنُو جَادَ وَنِصْفُ سِبْطِ مَنَسَّى وَقَالُوا لِرُؤَسَاءَ أُلُوفِ إِسْرَائِيلَ:21 Then the children of Reuben and the children of Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh answered, and said unto the heads of the thousands of Israel,
22 «إِلهُ الآلِهَةِ الرَّبُّ، إِلهُ الآلِهَةِ الرَّبُّ هُوَ يَعْلَمُ، وَإِسْرَائِيلُ سَيَعْلَمُ. إِنْ كَانَ بِتَمَرُّدٍ وَإِنْ كَانَ بِخِيَانَةٍ عَلَى الرَّبِّ، لاَ تُخَلِّصْنَا هذَا الْيَوْمَ.22 The LORD God of gods, the LORD God of gods, he knoweth, and Israel he shall know; if it be in rebellion, or if in transgression against the LORD, (save us not this day,)
23 بُنْيَانُنَا لأَنْفُسِنَا مَذْبَحًا لِلرُّجُوعِ عَنِ الرَّبِّ، أَوْ لإِصْعَادِ مُحْرَقَةٍ عَلَيْهِ أَوْ تَقْدِمَةٍ أَوْ لِعَمَلِ ذَبَائِحِ سَلاَمَةٍ عَلَيْهِ، فَالرَّبُّ هُوَ يُطَالِبُ.23 That we have built us an altar to turn from following the LORD, or if to offer thereon burnt offering or meat offering, or if to offer peace offerings thereon, let the LORD himself require it;
24 وَإِنْ كُنَّا لَمْ نَفْعَلْ ذلِكَ خَوْفًا وَعَنْ سَبَبٍ قَائِلِينَ: غَدًا يُكَلِّمُ بَنُوكُمْ بَنِينَا قَائِلِينَ: مَا لَكُمْ وَلِلرَّبِّ إِلهِ إِسْرَائِيلَ!24 And if we have not rather done it for fear of this thing, saying, In time to come your children might speak unto our children, saying, What have ye to do with the LORD God of Israel?
25 قَدْ جَعَلَ الرَّبُّ تُخُمًا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ يَا بَنِي رَأُوبَيْنَ وَبَنِي جَادَ: الأُرْدُنُّ. لَيْسَ لَكُمْ قِسْمٌ فِي الرَّبِّ. فَيَرُدُّ بَنُوكُمْ بَنِينَا حَتَّى لاَ يَخَافُوا الرَّبَّ.25 For the LORD hath made Jordan a border between us and you, ye children of Reuben and children of Gad; ye have no part in the LORD: so shall your children make our children cease from fearing the LORD.
26 فَقُلْنَا نَصْنَعُ نَحْنُ لأَنْفُسِنَا. نَبْنِي مَذْبَحًا، لاَ لِلْمُحْرَقَةِ وَلاَ لِلذَّبِيحَةِ،26 Therefore we said, Let us now prepare to build us an altar, not for burnt offering, nor for sacrifice:
27 بَلْ لِيَكُونَ هُوَ شَاهِدًا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَ أَجْيَالِنَا بَعْدَنَا، لِكَيْ نَخْدُمَ خِدْمَةَ الرَّبِّ أَمَامَهُ بِمُحْرَقَاتِنَا وَذَبَائِحِنَا وَذَبَائِحِ سَلاَمَتِنَا، وَلاَ يَقُولُ بَنُوكُمْ غَدًا لِبَنِينَا: لَيْسَ لَكُمْ قِسْمٌ فِي الرَّبِّ.27 But that it may be a witness between us, and you, and our generations after us, that we might do the service of the LORD before him with our burnt offerings, and with our sacrifices, and with our peace offerings; that your children may not say to our children in time to come, Ye have no part in the LORD.
28 وَقُلْنَا: يَكُونُ مَتَى قَالُوا كَذَا لَنَا وَلأَجْيَالِنَا غَدًا، أَنَّنَا نَقُولُ: اُنْظُرُوا شِبْهَ مَذْبَحِ الرَّبِّ الَّذِي عَمِلَ آبَاؤُنَا، لاَ لِلْمُحْرَقَةِ وَلاَ لِلذَّبِيحَةِ، بَلْ هُوَ شَاهِدٌ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ.28 Therefore said we, that it shall be, when they should so say to us or to our generations in time to come, that we may say again, Behold the pattern of the altar of the LORD, which our fathers made, not for burnt offerings, nor for sacrifices; but it is a witness between us and you.
29 حَاشَا لَنَا مِنْهُ أَنْ نَتَمَرَّدَ عَلَى الرَّبِّ وَنَرْجعَ الْيَوْمَ عَنِ الرَّبِّ لِبِنَاءِ مَذْبَحٍ لِلْمُحْرَقَةِ أَوِ التَّقْدِمَةِ أَوِ الذَّبِيحَةِ، عَدَا مَذْبَحِ الرَّبِّ إِلهِنَا الَّذِي هُوَ قُدَّامَ مَسْكَنِهِ».29 God forbid that we should rebel against the LORD, and turn this day from following the LORD, to build an altar for burnt offerings, for meat offerings, or for sacrifices, beside the altar of the LORD our God that is before his tabernacle.
30 فَسَمِعَ فِينْحَاسُ الْكَاهِنُ وَرُؤَسَاءُ الْجَمَاعَةِ وَرُؤُوسُ أُلُوفِ إِسْرَائِيلَ الَّذِينَ مَعَهُ الْكَلاَمَ الَّذِي تَكَلَّمَ بِهِ بَنُو رَأُوبَيْنَ وَبَنُو جَادَ وَبَنُو مَنَسَّى، فَحَسُنَ فِي أَعْيُنِهِمْ.30 And when Phinehas the priest, and the princes of the congregation and heads of the thousands of Israel which were with him, heard the words that the children of Reuben and the children of Gad and the children of Manasseh spake, it pleased them.
31 فَقَالَ فِينْحَاسُ بْنُ أَلِعَازَارَ الْكَاهِنِ لِبَنِي رَأُوبَيْنَ وَبَنِي جَادَ وَبَنِي مَنَسَّى: «الْيَوْمَ عَلِمْنَا أَنَّ الرَّبَّ بَيْنَنَا لأَنَّكُمْ لَمْ تَخُونُوا الرَّبَّ بِهذِهِ الْخِيَانَةِ. فَالآنَ قَدْ أَنْقَذْتُمْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ مِنْ يَدِ الرَّبِّ».31 And Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest said unto the children of Reuben, and to the children of Gad, and to the children of Manasseh, This day we perceive that the LORD is among us, because ye have not committed this trespass against the LORD: now ye have delivered the children of Israel out of the hand of the LORD.
32 ثُمَّ رَجَعَ فِينْحَاسُ بْنُ أَلِعَازَارَ الكَاهِنِ وَالرُّؤَسَاءُ مِنْ عِنْدِ بَنِي رَأُوبَيْنَ وَبَنِي جَادَ مِنْ أَرْضِ جِلْعَادَ إِلَى أَرْضِ كَنْعَانَ إِلَى بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ، وَرَدُّوا عَلَيْهِمْ خَبَرًا.32 And Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest, and the princes, returned from the children of Reuben, and from the children of Gad, out of the land of Gilead, unto the land of Canaan, to the children of Israel, and brought them word again.
33 فَحَسُنَ الأَمْرُ فِي أَعْيُنِ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ، وَبَارَكَ بَنُو إِسْرَائِيلَ اللهَ، وَلَمْ يَفْتَكِرُوا بِالصُّعُودِ إِلَيْهِمْ لِلْحَرْبِ وَتَخْرِيبِ الأَرْضِ الَّتِي كَانَ بَنُو رَأُوبَيْنَ وَبَنُو جَادَ سَاكِنِينَ بِهَا.33 And the thing pleased the children of Israel; and the children of Israel blessed God, and did not intend to go up against them in battle, to destroy the land wherein the children of Reuben and Gad dwelt.
34 وَسَمَّى بَنُو رَأُوبَيْنَ وَبَنُو جَادَ الْمَذْبَحَ «عِيدًا» لأَنَّهُ «شَاهِدٌ بَيْنَنَا أَنَّ الرَّبَّ هُوَ اللهُ».34 And the children of Reuben and the children of Gad called the altar Ed: for it shall be a witness between us that the LORD is God.