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تفسير Commentary
هلال أمين
وليم ماكدونالد
وليم مارش
Matthew Henry

صموئيل الأول [13] 1Samuel
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Chapter Summary
1 كَانَ شَاوُلُ ابْنَ سَنَةٍ فِي مُلْكِهِ، وَمَلَكَ سَنَتَيْنِ عَلَى إِسْرَائِيلَ.1 Saul reigned one year; and when he had reigned two years over Israel,
2 وَاخْتَارَ شَاوُلُ لِنَفْسِهِ ثَلاَثَةَ آلاَفٍ مِنْ إِسْرَائِيلَ، فَكَانَ أَلْفَانِ مَعَ شَاوُلَ فِي مِخْمَاسَ وَفِي جَبَلِ بَيْتِ إِيلَ، وَأَلْفٌ كَانَ مَعَ يُونَاثَانَ فِي جِبْعَةِ بَنْيَامِينَ. وَأَمَّا بَقِيَّةُ الشَّعْبِ فَأَرْسَلَهُمْ كُلَّ وَاحِدٍ إِلَى خَيْمَتِهِ.2 Saul chose him three thousand men of Israel; whereof two thousand were with Saul in Michmash and in mount Bethel, and a thousand were with Jonathan in Gibeah of Benjamin: and the rest of the people he sent every man to his tent.
3 وَضَرَبَ يُونَاثَانُ نَصَبَ الْفِلِسْطِينِيِّينَ الَّذِي فِي جِبْعَ، فَسَمِعَ الْفِلِسْطِينِيُّونَ. وَضَرَبَ شَاوُلُ بِالْبُوقِ فِي جَمِيعِ الأَرْضِ قَائِلاً: «لِيَسْمَعِ الْعِبْرَانِيُّونَ».3 And Jonathan smote the garrison of the Philistines that was in Geba, and the Philistines heard of it. And Saul blew the trumpet throughout all the land, saying, Let the Hebrews hear.
4 فَسَمِعَ جَمِيعُ إِسْرَائِيلَ قَوْلاً: «قَدْ ضَرَبَ شَاوُلُ نَصَبَ الْفِلِسْطِينِيِّينَ، وَأَيْضًا قَدْ أَنْتَنَ إِسْرَائِيلُ لَدَى الْفِلِسْطِينِيِّينَ». فَاجْتَمَعَ الشَّعْبُ وَرَاءَ شَاوُلَ إِلَى الْجِلْجَالِ.4 And all Israel heard say that Saul had smitten a garrison of the Philistines, and that Israel also was had in abomination with the Philistines. And the people were called together after Saul to Gilgal.
5 وَتَجَمَّعَ الْفِلِسْطِينِيُّونَ لِمُحَارَبَةِ إِسْرَائِيلَ، ثَلاَثُونَ أَلْفَ مَرْكَبَةٍ، وَسِتَّةُ آلاَفِ فَارِسٍ، وَشَعْبٌ كَالرَّمْلِ الَّذِي عَلَى شَاطِئِ الْبَحْرِ فِي الْكَثْرَةِ. وَصَعِدُوا وَنَزَلُوا فِي مِخْمَاسَ شَرْقِيَّ بَيْتِ آوِنَ.5 And the Philistines gathered themselves together to fight with Israel, thirty thousand chariots, and six thousand horsemen, and people as the sand which is on the sea shore in multitude: and they came up, and pitched in Michmash, eastward from Bethaven.
6 وَلَمَّا رَأَى رِجَالُ إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنَّهُمْ فِي ضَنْكٍ، لأَنَّ الشَّعْبَ تَضَايَقَ، اخْتَبَأَ الشَّعْبُ فِي الْمَغَايِرِ وَالْغِيَاضِ وَالصُّخُورِ وَالصُّرُوحِ وَالآبَارِ. 6 When the men of Israel saw that they were in a strait, (for the people were distressed,) then the people did hide themselves in caves, and in thickets, and in rocks, and in high places, and in pits.
7 وَبَعْضُ الْعِبْرَانِيِّينَ عَبَرُوا الأُرْدُنَّ إِلَى أَرْضِ جَادَ وَجِلْعَادَ. وَكَانَ شَاوُلُ بَعْدُ فِي الْجِلْجَالِ وَكُلُّ الشَّعْبِ ارْتَعَدَ وَرَاءَهُ.7 And some of the Hebrews went over Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead. As for Saul, he was yet in Gilgal, and all the people followed him trembling.
8 فَمَكَثَ سَبْعَةَ أَيَّامٍ حَسَبَ مِيعَادِ صَمُوئِيلَ، وَلَمْ يَأْتِ صَمُوئِيلُ إِلَى الْجِلْجَالِ، وَالشَّعْبُ تَفَرَّقَ عَنْهُ.8 And he tarried seven days, according to the set time that Samuel had appointed: but Samuel came not to Gilgal; and the people were scattered from him.
9 فَقَالَ شَاوُلُ: «قَدِّمُوا إِلَيَّ الْمُحْرَقَةَ وَذَبَائِحَ السَّلاَمَةِ». فَأَصْعَدَ الْمُحْرَقَةَ.9 And Saul said, Bring hither a burnt offering to me, and peace offerings. And he offered the burnt offering.
10 وَكَانَ لَمَّا انْتَهَى مِنْ إِصْعَادِ الْمُحْرَقَةِ إِذَا صَمُوئِيلُ مُقْبِلٌ، فَخَرَجَ شَاوُلُ لِلِقَائِهِ لِيُبَارِكَهُ.10 And it came to pass, that as soon as he had made an end of offering the burnt offering, behold, Samuel came; and Saul went out to meet him, that he might salute him.
11 فَقَالَ صَمُوئِيلُ: «مَاذَا فَعَلْتَ؟» فَقَالَ شَاوُلُ: «لأَنِّي رَأَيْتُ أَنَّ الشَّعْبَ قَدْ تَفَرَّقَ عَنِّي، وَأَنْتَ لَمْ تَأْتِ فِي أَيَّامِ الْمِيعَادِ، وَالْفِلِسْطِينِيُّونَ مُتَجَمِّعُونَ فِي مِخْمَاسَ،11 And Samuel said, What hast thou done? And Saul said, Because I saw that the people were scattered from me, and that thou camest not within the days appointed, and that the Philistines gathered themselves together at Michmash;
12 فَقُلْتُ: الآنَ يَنْزِلُ الْفِلِسْطِينِيُّونَ إِلَيَّ إِلَى الْجِلْجَالِ وَلَمْ أَتَضَرَّعْ إِلَى وَجْهِ الرَّبِّ، فَتَجَلَّدْتُ وَأَصْعَدْتُ الْمُحْرَقَةَ». 12 Therefore said I, The Philistines will come down now upon me to Gilgal, and I have not made supplication unto the LORD: I forced myself therefore, and offered a burnt offering.
13 فَقَالَ صَمُوئِيلُ لِشَاوُلَ: «قَدِ انْحَمَقْتَ! لَمْ تَحْفَظْ وَصِيَّةَ الرَّبِّ إِلهِكَ الَّتِي أَمَرَكَ بِهَا، لأَنَّهُ الآنَ كَانَ الرَّبُّ قَدْ ثَبَّتَ مَمْلَكَتَكَ عَلَى إِسْرَائِيلَ إِلَى الأَبَدِ.13 And Samuel said to Saul, Thou hast done foolishly: thou hast not kept the commandment of the LORD thy God, which he commanded thee: for now would the LORD have established thy kingdom upon Israel for ever.
14 وَأَمَّا الآنَ فَمَمْلَكَتُكَ لاَ تَقُومُ. قَدِ انْتَخَبَ الرَّبُّ لِنَفْسِهِ رَجُلاً حَسَبَ قَلْبِهِ، وَأَمَرَهُ الرَّبُّ أَنْ يَتَرَأَّسَ عَلَى شَعْبِهِ. لأَنَّكَ لَمْ تَحْفَظْ مَا أَمَرَكَ بِهِ الرَّبُّ».14 But now thy kingdom shall not continue: the LORD hath sought him a man after his own heart, and the LORD hath commanded him to be captain over his people, because thou hast not kept that which the LORD commanded thee.
15 وَقَامَ صَمُوئِيلُ وَصَعِدَ مِنَ الْجِلْجَالِ إِلَى جِبْعَةِ بَنْيَامِينَ. وَعَدَّ شَاوُلُ الشَّعْبَ الْمَوْجُودَ مَعَهُ نَحْوَ سِتِّ مِئَةِ رَجُل.15 And Samuel arose, and gat him up from Gilgal unto Gibeah of Benjamin. And Saul numbered the people that were present with him, about six hundred men.
16 وَكَانَ شَاوُلُ وَيُونَاثَانُ ابْنُهُ وَالشَّعْبُ الْمَوْجُودُ مَعَهُمَا مُقِيمِينَ فِي جِبْعِ بَنْيَامِينَ، وَالْفِلِسْطِينِيُّونَ نَزَلُوا فِي مِخْمَاسَ.16 And Saul, and Jonathan his son, and the people that were present with them, abode in Gibeah of Benjamin: but the Philistines encamped in Michmash.
17 فَخَرَجَ الْمُخَرِّبُونَ مِنْ مَحَلَّةِ الْفِلِسْطِينِيِّينَ فِي ثَلاَثِ فِرَق. الْفِرْقَةُ الْوَاحِدَةُ تَوَجَّهَتْ فِي طَرِيقِ عَفْرَةَ إِلَى أَرْضِ شُوعَالَ،17 And the spoilers came out of the camp of the Philistines in three companies: one company turned unto the way that leadeth to Ophrah, unto the land of Shual:
18 وَالْفِرْقَةُ الأُخْرَى تَوَجَّهَتْ فِي طَرِيقِ بَيْتِ حُورُونَ، وَالْفِرْقَةُ الأُخْرَى تَوَجَّهَتْ فِي طَرِيقِ التُّخُمِ الْمُشْرِفِ عَلَى وَادِي صَبُوعِيمَ نَحْوَ الْبَرِّيَّةِ.18 And another company turned the way to Bethhoron: and another company turned to the way of the border that looketh to the valley of Zeboim toward the wilderness.
19 وَلَمْ يُوجَدْ صَانِعٌ فِي كُلِّ أَرْضِ إِسْرَائِيلَ، لأَنَّ الْفِلِسْطِينِيِّينَ قَالُوا: «لِئَلاَّ يَعْمَلَ الْعِبْرَانِيُّونَ سَيْفًا أَوْ رُمْحًا».19 Now there was no smith found throughout all the land of Israel: for the Philistines said, Lest the Hebrews make them swords or spears:
20 بَلْ كَانَ يَنْزِلُ كُلُّ إِسْرَائِيلَ إِلَى الْفِلِسْطِينِيِّينَ لِيُحَدِّدَ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ سِكَّتَهُ وَمِنْجَلَهُ وَفَأْسَهُ وَمِعْوَلَهُ20 But all the Israelites went down to the Philistines, to sharpen every man his share, and his coulter, and his axe, and his mattock.
21 عِنْدَمَا كَلَّتْ حُدُودُ السِّكَكِ وَالْمَنَاجِلِ وَالْمُثَلَّثَاتِ الأَسْنَانِ وَالْفُؤُوسِ وَلِتَرْوِيسِ الْمَنَاسِيسِ.21 Yet they had a file for the mattocks, and for the coulters, and for the forks, and for the axes, and to sharpen the goads.
22 وَكَانَ فِي يَوْمِ الْحَرْبِ أَنَّهُ لَمْ يُوجَدْ سَيْفٌ وَلاَ رُمْحٌ بِيَدِ جَمِيعِ الشَّعْبِ الَّذِي مَعَ شَاوُلَ وَمَعَ يُونَاثَانَ. عَلَى أَنَّهُ وُجِدَ مَعَ شَاوُلَ وَيُونَاثَانَ ابْنِهِ.22 So it came to pass in the day of battle, that there was neither sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people that were with Saul and Jonathan: but with Saul and with Jonathan his son was there found.
23 وَخَرَجَ حَفَظَةُ الْفِلِسْطِينِيِّينَ إِلَى مَعْبَرِ مِخْمَاسَ.23 And the garrison of the Philistines went out to the passage of Michmash.
ضَنْك
ضيق، مكان ضيِّق.
غِياض
مفردها غيضة: مجموعة أشجار متشابكة في مستنقع مياه.
تَجلَّد
تشجَّع، تجرّأ، تشدّد.