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إصحاحات Chapters
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28 29 30 31

تفسير Commentary
هلال أمين
وليم ماكدونالد
وليم مارش
Matthew Henry

صموئيل الأول [20] 1Samuel
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Chapter Summary
1 فَهَرَبَ دَاوُدُ مِنْ نَايُوتَ فِي الرَّامَةِ، وَجَاءَ وَقَالَ قُدَّامَ يُونَاثَانَ: «مَاذَا عَمِلْتُ؟ وَمَا هُوَ إِثْمِي؟ وَمَا هِيَ خَطِيَّتِي أَمَامَ أَبِيكَ حَتَّى يَطْلُبَ نَفْسِي؟»1 And David fled from Naioth in Ramah, and came and said before Jonathan, What have I done? what is mine iniquity? and what is my sin before thy father, that he seeketh my life?
2 فَقَالَ لَهُ: «حَاشَا. لاَ تَمُوتُ! هُوَذَا أَبِي لاَ يَعْمَلُ أَمْرًا كَبِيرًا وَلاَ أَمْرًا صَغِيرًا إِلاَّ وَيُخْبِرُنِي بِهِ. وَلِمَاذَا يُخْفِي عَنِّي أَبِي هذَا الأَمْرَ؟ لَيْسَ كَذَا».2 And he said unto him, God forbid; thou shalt not die: behold, my father will do nothing either great or small, but that he will show it me: and why should my father hide this thing from me? it is not so.
3 فَحَلَفَ أَيْضًا دَاوُدُ وَقَالَ: «إِنَّ أَبَاكَ قَدْ عَلِمَ أَنِّي قَدْ وَجَدْتُ نِعْمَةً فِي عَيْنَيْكَ، فَقَالَ: لاَ يَعْلَمْ يُونَاثَانُ هذَا لِئَلاَّ يَغْتَمَّ. وَلكِنْ حَيٌّ هُوَ الرَّبُّ، وَحَيَّةٌ هِيَ نَفْسُكَ، إِنَّهُ كَخَطْوَةٍ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَ الْمَوْتِ».3 And David sware moreover, and said, Thy father certainly knoweth that I have found grace in thine eyes; and he saith, Let not Jonathan know this, lest he be grieved: but truly as the LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth, there is but a step between me and death.
4 فَقَالَ يُونَاثَانُ لِدَاوُدَ: «مَهْمَا تَقُلْ نَفْسُكَ أَفْعَلْهُ لَكَ».4 Then said Jonathan unto David, Whatsoever thy soul desireth, I will even do it for thee.
5 فَقَالَ دَاوُدُ لِيُونَاثَانَ: «هُوَذَا الشَّهْرُ غَدًا حِينَمَا أَجْلِسُ مَعَ الْمَلِكِ لِلأَكْلِ. وَلكِنْ أَرْسِلْنِي فَأَخْتَبِئَ فِي الْحَقْلِ إِلَى مَسَاءِ الْيَوْمِ الثَّالِثِ.5 And David said unto Jonathan, Behold, to morrow is the new moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king at meat: but let me go, that I may hide myself in the field unto the third day at even.
6 وَإِذَا افْتَقَدَنِي أَبُوكَ، فَقُلْ: قَدْ طَلَبَ دَاوُدُ مِنِّي طِلْبَةً أَنْ يَرْكُضَ إِلَى بَيْتِ لَحْمٍ مَدِينَتِهِ، لأَنَّ هُنَاكَ ذَبِيحَةً سَنَوِيَّةً لِكُلِّ الْعَشِيرَةِ.6 If thy father at all miss me, then say, David earnestly asked leave of me that he might run to Bethlehem his city: for there is a yearly sacrifice there for all the family.
7 فَإِنْ قَالَ هَكَذاَ: حَسَنًا. كَانَ سَلاَمٌ لِعَبْدِكَ. وَلكِنْ إِنِ اغْتَاظَ غَيْظًا، فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ قَدْ أُعِدَّ الشَّرُّ عِنْدَهُ.7 If he say thus, It is well; thy servant shall have peace: but if he be very wroth, then be sure that evil is determined by him.
8 فَتَعْمَلُ مَعْرُوفًا مَعَ عَبْدِكَ، لأَنَّكَ بِعَهْدِ الرَّبِّ أَدْخَلْتَ عَبْدَكَ مَعَكَ. وَإِنْ كَانَ فِيَّ إِثْمٌ فَاقْتُلْنِي أَنْتَ، وَلِمَاذَا تَأْتِي بِي إِلَى أَبِيكَ؟».8 Therefore thou shalt deal kindly with thy servant; for thou hast brought thy servant into a covenant of the LORD with thee: notwithstanding, if there be in me iniquity, slay me thyself; for why shouldest thou bring me to thy father?
9 فَقَالَ يُونَاثَانُ: «حَاشَا لَكَ! لأَنَّهُ لَوْ عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ الشَّرَّ قَدْ أُعِدَّ عِنْدَ أَبِي لِيَأْتِيَ عَلَيْكَ، أَفَمَا كُنْتُ أُخْبِرُكَ بِهِ؟».9 And Jonathan said, Far be it from thee: for if I knew certainly that evil were determined by my father to come upon thee, then would not I tell it thee?
10 فَقَالَ دَاوُدُ لِيُونَاثَانَ: «مَنْ يُخْبِرُنِي إِنْ جَاوَبَكَ أَبُوكَ شَيْئًا قَاسِيًا؟».10 Then said David to Jonathan, Who shall tell me? or what if thy father answer thee roughly?
11 فَقَالَ يُونَاثَانُ لِدَاوُدَ: «تَعَالَ نَخْرُجُ إِلَى الْحَقْلِ». فَخَرَجَا كِلاَهُمَا إِلَى الْحَقْلِ.11 And Jonathan said unto David, Come, and let us go out into the field. And they went out both of them into the field.
12 وَقَالَ يُونَاثَانُ لِدَاوُدَ: «يَا رَبُّ إِلهَ إِسْرَائِيلَ، مَتَى اخْتَبَرْتُ أَبِي مِثْلَ الآنَ غَدًا أَوْ بَعْدَ غَدٍ، فَإِنْ كَانَ خَيْرٌ لِدَاوُدَ وَلَمْ أُرْسِلْ حِينَئِذٍ فَأُخْبِرَهُ،12 And Jonathan said unto David, O LORD God of Israel, when I have sounded my father about to morrow any time, or the third day, and, behold, if there be good toward David, and I then send not unto thee, and show it thee;
13 فَهكَذَا يَفْعَلُ الرَّبُّ لِيُونَاثَانَ وَهكَذَا يَزِيدُ. وَإِنِ اسْتَحْسَنَ أَبِي الشَّرَّ نَحْوَكَ، فَإِنِّي أُخْبِرُكَ وَأُطْلِقُكَ فَتَذْهَبُ بِسَلاَمٍ. وَلْيَكُنِ الرَّبُّ مَعَكَ كَمَا كَانَ مَعَ أَبِي.13 The LORD do so and much more to Jonathan: but if it please my father to do thee evil, then I will show it thee, and send thee away, that thou mayest go in peace: and the LORD be with thee, as he hath been with my father.
14 وَلاَ وَأَنَا حَيٌّ بَعْدُ تَصْنَعُ مَعِي إِحْسَانَ الرَّبِّ حَتَّى لاَ أَمُوتَ،14 And thou shalt not only while yet I live show me the kindness of the LORD, that I die not:
15 بَلْ لاَ تَقْطَعُ مَعْرُوفَكَ عَنْ بَيْتِي إِلَى الأَبَدِ، وَلاَ حِينَ يَقْطَعُ الرَّبُّ أَعْدَاءَ دَاوُدَ جَمِيعًا عَنْ وَجْهِ الأَرْضِ».15 But also thou shalt not cut off thy kindness from my house for ever: no, not when the LORD hath cut off the enemies of David every one from the face of the earth.
16 فَعَاهَدَ يُونَاثَانُ بَيْتَ دَاوُدَ وَقَالَ: «لِيَطْلُبِ الرَّبُّ مِنْ يَدِ أَعْدَاءِ دَاوُدَ».16 So Jonathan made a covenant with the house of David, saying, Let the LORD even require it at the hand of David's enemies.
17 ثُمَّ عَادَ يُونَاثَانُ وَاسْتَحْلَفَ دَاوُدَ بِمَحَبَّتِهِ لَهُ لأَنَّهُ أَحَبَّهُ مَحَبَّةَ نَفْسِهِ.17 And Jonathan caused David to swear again, because he loved him: for he loved him as he loved his own soul.
18 وَقَالَ لَهُ يُونَاثَانُ: «غَدًا الشَّهْرُ، فَتُفْتَقَدُ لأَنَّ مَوْضِعَكَ يَكُونُ خَالِيًا.18 Then Jonathan said to David, To morrow is the new moon: and thou shalt be missed, because thy seat will be empty.
19 وَفِي الْيَوْمِ الثَّالِثِ تَنْزِلُ سَرِيعًا وَتَأْتِي إِلَى الْمَوْضِعِ الَّذِي اخْتَبَأْتَ فِيهِ يَوْمَ الْعَمَلِ، وَتَجْلِسُ بِجَانِبِ حَجَرِ الافْتِرَاقِ.19 And when thou hast stayed three days, then thou shalt go down quickly, and come to the place where thou didst hide thyself when the business was in hand, and shalt remain by the stone Ezel.
20 وَأَنَا أَرْمِي ثَلاَثَةَ سِهَامٍ إِلَى جَانِبِهِ كَأَنِّي أَرْمِي غَرَضًا. 20 And I will shoot three arrows on the side thereof, as though I shot at a mark.
21 وَحِينَئِذٍ أُرْسِلُ الْغُلاَمَ قَائِلاً: اذْهَبِ الْتَقِطِ السِّهَامَ. فَإِنْ قُلْتُ لِلْغُلاَمِ: هُوَذَا السِّهَامُ دُونَكَ فَجَائِيًا، خُذْهَا. فَتَعَالَ، لأَنَّ لَكَ سَلاَمًا. لاَ يُوجَدُ شَيْءٌ، حَيٌّ هُوَ الرَّبُّ.21 And, behold, I will send a lad, saying, Go, find out the arrows. If I expressly say unto the lad, Behold, the arrows are on this side of thee, take them; then come thou: for there is peace to thee, and no hurt; as the LORD liveth.
22 وَلكِنْ إِنْ قُلْتُ هكَذَا لِلْغُلاَمِ: هُوَذَا السِّهَامُ دُونَكَ فَصَاعِدًا. فَاذْهَبْ، لأَنَّ الرَّبَّ قَدْ أَطْلَقَكَ.22 But if I say thus unto the young man, Behold, the arrows are beyond thee; go thy way: for the LORD hath sent thee away.
23 وَأَمَّا الْكَلاَمُ الَّذِي تَكَلَّمْنَا بِهِ أَنَا وَأَنْتَ، فَهُوَذَا الرَّبُّ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكَ إِلَى الأَبَدِ».23 And as touching the matter which thou and I have spoken of, behold, the LORD be between thee and me for ever.
24 فَاخْتَبَأَ دَاوُدُ فِي الْحَقْلِ. وَكَانَ الشَّهْرُ، فَجَلَسَ الْمَلِكُ عَلَى الطَّعَامِ لِيَأْكُلَ.24 So David hid himself in the field: and when the new moon was come, the king sat him down to eat meat.
25 فَجَلَسَ الْمَلِكُ فِي مَوْضِعِهِ حَسَبَ كُلِّ مَرَّةٍ عَلَى مَجْلِسٍ عِنْدَ الْحَائِطِ. وَقَامَ يُونَاثَانُ وَجَلَسَ أَبْنَيْرُ إِلَى جَانِبِ شَاوُلَ، وَخَلاَ مَوْضِعُ دَاوُدَ.25 And the king sat upon his seat, as at other times, even upon a seat by the wall: and Jonathan arose, and Abner sat by Saul's side, and David's place was empty.
26 وَلَمْ يَقُلْ شَاوُلُ شَيْئًا فِي ذلِكَ الْيَوْمِ، لأَنَّهُ قَالَ: «لَعَلَّهُ عَارِضٌ. غَيْرُ طَاهِرٍ هُوَ. إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ طَاهِرًا».26 Nevertheless Saul spake not any thing that day: for he thought, Something hath befallen him, he is not clean; surely he is not clean.
27 وَكَانَ فِي الْغَدِ الثَّانِي مِنَ الشَّهْرِ أَنَّ مَوْضِعَ دَاوُدَ خَلاَ، فَقَالَ شَاوُلُ لِيُونَاثَانَ ابْنِهِ: «لِمَاذَا لَمْ يَأْتِ ابْنُ يَسَّى إِلَى الطَّعَامِ لاَ أَمْسِ وَلاَ الْيَوْمَ؟»27 And it came to pass on the morrow, which was the second day of the month, that David's place was empty: and Saul said unto Jonathan his son, Wherefore cometh not the son of Jesse to meat, neither yesterday, nor to day?
28 فَأَجَابَ يُونَاثَانُ شَاوُلَ: «إِنَّ دَاوُدَ طَلَبَ مِنِّي أَنْ يَذْهَبَ إِلَى بَيْتِ لَحْمٍ،28 And Jonathan answered Saul, David earnestly asked leave of me to go to Bethlehem:
29 وَقَالَ: أَطْلِقْنِي لأَنَّ عِنْدَنَا ذَبِيحَةَ عَشِيرَةٍ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ، وَقَدْ أَوْصَانِي أَخِي بِذلِكَ. وَالآنَ إِنْ وَجَدْتُ نِعْمَةً فِي عَيْنَيْكَ فَدَعْنِي أُفْلِتُ وَأَرَى إِخْوَتِي. لِذلِكَ لَمْ يَأْتِ إِلَى مَائِدَةِ الْمَلِكِ».29 And he said, Let me go, I pray thee; for our family hath a sacrifice in the city; and my brother, he hath commanded me to be there: and now, if I have found favor in thine eyes, let me get away, I pray thee, and see my brethren. Therefore he cometh not unto the king's table.
30 فَحَمِيَ غَضَبُ شَاوُلَ عَلَى يُونَاثَانَ وَقَالَ لَهُ: «يَا ابْنَ الْمُتَعَوِّجَةِ الْمُتَمَرِّدَةِ، أَمَا عَلِمْتُ أَنَّكَ قَدِ اخْتَرْتَ ابْنَ يَسَّى لِخِزْيِكَ وَخِزْيِ عَوْرَةِ أُمِّكَ؟30 Then Saul's anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said unto him, Thou son of the perverse rebellious woman, do not I know that thou hast chosen the son of Jesse to thine own confusion, and unto the confusion of thy mother's nakedness?
31 لأَنَّهُ مَا دَامَ ابْنُ يَسَّى حَيًّا عَلَى الأَرْضِ لاَ تُثْبَتُ أَنْتَ وَلاَ مَمْلَكَتُكَ. وَالآنَ أَرْسِلْ وَأْتِ بِهِ إِلَيَّ لأَنَّهُ ابْنُ الْمَوْتِ هُوَ».31 For as long as the son of Jesse liveth upon the ground, thou shalt not be established, nor thy kingdom. Wherefore now send and fetch him unto me, for he shall surely die.
32 فَأَجَابَ يُونَاثَانُ شَاوُلَ أَبَاهُ وَقَالَ لَهُ: «لِمَاذَا يُقْتَلُ؟ مَاذَا عَمِلَ؟».32 And Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said unto him, Wherefore shall he be slain? what hath he done?
33 فَصَابَى شَاوُلُ الرُّمْحَ نَحْوَهُ لِيَطْعَنَهُ، فَعَلِمَ يُونَاثَانُ أَنَّ أَبَاهُ قَدْ عَزَمَ عَلَى قَتْلِ دَاوُدَ. 33 And Saul cast a javelin at him to smite him: whereby Jonathan knew that it was determined of his father to slay David.
34 فَقَامَ يُونَاثَانُ عَنِ الْمَائِدَةِ بِحُمُوِّ غَضَبٍ وَلَمْ يَأْكُلْ خُبْزًا فِي الْيَوْمِ الثَّانِي مِنَ الشَّهْرِ، لأَنَّهُ اغْتَمَّ عَلَى دَاوُدَ، لأَنَّ أَبَاهُ قَدْ أَخْزَاهُ.34 So Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger, and did eat no meat the second day of the month: for he was grieved for David, because his father had done him shame.
35 وَكَانَ فِي الصَّبَاحِ أَنَّ يُونَاثَانَ خَرَجَ إِلَى الْحَقْلِ إِلَى مِيعَادِ دَاوُدَ، وَغُلاَمٌ صَغِيرٌ مَعَهُ.35 And it came to pass in the morning, that Jonathan went out into the field at the time appointed with David, and a little lad with him.
36 وَقَالَ لِغُلاَمِهِ: «ارْكُضِ الْتَقِطِ السِّهَامَ الَّتِي أَنَا رَامِيهَا». وَبَيْنَمَا الْغُلاَمُ رَاكِضٌ رَمَى السَّهْمَ حَتَّى جَاوَزَهُ.36 And he said unto his lad, Run, find out now the arrows which I shoot. And as the lad ran, he shot an arrow beyond him.
37 وَلَمَّا جَاءَ الْغُلاَمُ إِلَى مَوْضِعِ السَّهْمِ الَّذِي رَمَاهُ يُونَاثَانُ، نَادَى يُونَاثَانُ وَرَاءَ الْغُلاَمِ وَقَالَ: «أَلَيْسَ السَّهْمُ دُونَكَ فَصَاعِدًا؟».37 And when the lad was come to the place of the arrow which Jonathan had shot, Jonathan cried after the lad, and said, Is not the arrow beyond thee?
38 وَنَادَى يُونَاثَانُ وَرَاءَ الْغُلاَمِ قَائِلاً: «اعْجَلْ. أَسْرِعْ. لاَ تَقِفْ». فَالْتَقَطَ غُلاَمُ يُونَاثَانَ السَّهْمَ وَجَاءَ إِلَى سَيِّدِهِ.38 And Jonathan cried after the lad, Make speed, haste, stay not. And Jonathan's lad gathered up the arrows, and came to his master.
39 وَالْغُلاَمُ لَمْ يَكُنْ يَعْلَمُ شَيْئًا، وَأَمَّا يُونَاثَانُ وَدَاوُدُ فَكَانَا يَعْلَمَانِ الأَمْرَ.39 But the lad knew not any thing: only Jonathan and David knew the matter.
40 فَأَعْطَى يُونَاثَانُ سِلاَحَهُ لِلْغُلاَمِ الَّذِي لَهُ وَقَالَ لَهُ: «اذْهَبِ. ادْخُلْ بِهِ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ».40 And Jonathan gave his artillery unto his lad, and said unto him, Go, carry them to the city.
41 اَلْغُلاَمُ ذَهَبَ وَدَاوُدُ قَامَ مِنْ جَانِبِ الْجَنُوبِ وَسَقَطَ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ إِلَى الأَرْضِ وَسَجَدَ ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ. وَقَبَّلَ كُلٌّ مِنْهُمَا صَاحِبَهُ، وَبَكَى كُلٌّ مِنْهُمَا مَعَ صَاحِبِهِ حَتَّى زَادَ دَاوُدُ.41 And as soon as the lad was gone, David arose out of a place toward the south, and fell on his face to the ground, and bowed himself three times: and they kissed one another, and wept one with another, until David exceeded.
42 فَقَالَ يُونَاثَانُ لِدَاوُدَ: «اذْهَبْ بِسَلاَمٍ لأَنَّنَا كِلَيْنَا قَدْ حَلَفْنَا بِاسْمِ الرَّبِّ قَائِلَيْنِ: الرَّبُّ يَكُونُ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ نَسْلِي وَنَسْلِكَ إِلَى الأَبَدِ». فَقَامَ وَذَهَبَ، وَأَمَّا يُونَاثَانُ فَجَاءَ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ.42 And Jonathan said to David, Go in peace, forasmuch as we have sworn both of us in the name of the LORD, saying, The LORD be between me and thee, and between my seed and thy seed for ever. And he arose and departed: and Jonathan went into the city.
غَرض
هدف، قصد.
صابى
صوّب، سدّد.