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تفسير Commentary
هلال أمين
وليم ماكدونالد
وليم مارش
Matthew Henry

صموئيل الأول [19] 1Samuel
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Chapter Summary
1 وَكَلَّمَ شَاوُلُ يُونَاثَانَ ابْنَهُ وَجَمِيعَ عَبِيدِهِ أَنْ يَقْتُلُوا دَاوُدَ.1 And Saul spake to Jonathan his son, and to all his servants, that they should kill David.
2 وَأَمَّا يُونَاثَانُ بْنُ شَاوُلَ فَسُرَّ بِدَاوُدَ جِدًّا. فَأَخْبَرَ يُونَاثَانُ دَاوُدَ قَائِلاً: «شَاوُلُ أَبِي مُلْتَمِسٌ قَتْلَكَ، وَالآنَ فَاحْتَفِظْ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ إِلَى الصَّبَاحِ، وَأَقِمْ فِي خُفْيَةٍ وَاخْتَبِئْ.2 But Jonathan Saul's son delighted much in David: and Jonathan told David, saying, Saul my father seeketh to kill thee: now therefore, I pray thee, take heed to thyself until the morning, and abide in a secret place, and hide thyself:
3 وَأَنَا أَخْرُجُ وَأَقِفُ بِجَانِبِ أَبِي فِي الْحَقْلِ الَّذِي أَنْتَ فِيهِ، وَأُكَلِّمُ أَبِي عَنْكَ، وَأَرَى مَاذَا يَصِيرُ وَأُخْبِرُكَ».3 And I will go out and stand beside my father in the field where thou art, and I will commune with my father of thee; and what I see, that I will tell thee.
4 وَتَكَلَّمَ يُونَاثَانُ عَنْ دَاوُدَ حَسَنًا مَعَ شَاوُلَ أَبِيهِ وَقَالَ لَهُ: «لاَ يُخْطِئِ الْمَلِكُ إِلَى عَبْدِهِ دَاوُدَ، لأَنَّهُ لَمْ يُخْطِئْ إِلَيْكَ، وَلأَنَّ أَعْمَالَهُ حَسَنَةٌ لَكَ جِدًّا.4 And Jonathan spake good of David unto Saul his father, and said unto him, Let not the king sin against his servant, against David; because he hath not sinned against thee, and because his works have been to thee-ward very good:
5 فَإِنَّهُ وَضَعَ نَفْسَهُ بِيَدِهِ وَقَتَلَ الْفِلِسْطِينِيَّ فَصَنَعَ الرَّبُّ خَلاَصًا عَظِيمًا لِجَمِيعِ إِسْرَائِيلَ. أَنْتَ رَأَيْتَ وَفَرِحْتَ. فَلِمَاذَا تُخْطِئُ إِلَى دَمٍ بَرِيءٍ بِقَتْلِ دَاوُدَ بِلاَ سَبَبٍ؟»5 For he did put his life in his hand, and slew the Philistine, and the LORD wrought a great salvation for all Israel: thou sawest it, and didst rejoice: wherefore then wilt thou sin against innocent blood, to slay David without a cause?
6 فَسَمِعَ شَاوُلُ لِصَوْتِ يُونَاثَانَ، وَحَلَفَ شَاوُلُ: «حَيٌّ هُوَ الرَّبُّ لاَ يُقْتَلُ».6 And Saul hearkened unto the voice of Jonathan: and Saul sware, As the LORD liveth, he shall not be slain.
7 فَدَعَا يُونَاثَانُ دَاوُدَ وَأَخْبَرَهُ بِجَمِيعِ هذَا الْكَلاَمِ. ثُمَّ جَاءَ يُونَاثَانُ بِدَاوُدَ إِلَى شَاوُلَ فَكَانَ أَمَامَهُ كَأَمْسٍ وَمَا قَبْلَهُ.7 And Jonathan called David, and Jonathan showed him all those things. And Jonathan brought David to Saul, and he was in his presence, as in times past.
8 وَعَادَتِ الْحَرْبُ تَحْدُثُ، فَخَرَجَ دَاوُدُ وَحَارَبَ الْفِلِسْطِينِيِّينَ وَضَرَبَهُمْ ضَرْبَةً عَظِيمَةً فَهَرَبُوا مِنْ أَمَامِهِ.8 And there was war again: and David went out, and fought with the Philistines, and slew them with a great slaughter; and they fled from him.
9 وَكَانَ الرُّوحُ الرَّدِيءُ مِنْ قِبَلِ الرَّبِّ عَلَى شَاوُلَ وَهُوَ جَالِسٌ فِي بَيْتِهِ وَرُمْحُهُ بِيَدِهِ، وَكَانَ دَاوُدُ يَضْرِبُ بِالْيَدِ.9 And the evil spirit from the LORD was upon Saul, as he sat in his house with his javelin in his hand: and David played with his hand.
10 فَالْتَمَسَ شَاوُلُ أَنْ يَطْعَنَ دَاوُدَ بِالرُّمْحِ حَتَّى إِلَى الْحَائِطِ، فَفَرَّ مِنْ أَمَامِ شَاوُلَ فَضَرَبَ الرُّمْحَ إِلَى الْحَائِطِ، فَهَرَبَ دَاوُدُ وَنَجَا تِلْكَ اللَّيْلَةَ.10 And Saul sought to smite David even to the wall with the javelin: but he slipped away out of Saul's presence, and he smote the javelin into the wall: and David fled, and escaped that night.
11 فَأَرْسَلَ شَاوُلُ رُسُلاً إِلَى بَيْتِ دَاوُدَ لِيُرَاقِبُوهُ وَيَقْتُلُوهُ فِي الصَّبَاحِ. فَأَخْبَرَتْ دَاوُدَ مِيكَالُ امْرَأَتُهُ قَائِلَةً: «إِنْ كُنْتَ لاَ تَنْجُو بِنَفْسِكَ هذِهِ اللَّيْلَةَ فَإِنَّكَ تُقْتَلُ غَدًا».11 Saul also sent messengers unto David's house, to watch him, and to slay him in the morning: and Michal David's wife told him, saying, If thou save not thy life to night, to morrow thou shalt be slain.
12 فَأَنْزَلَتْ مِيكَالُ دَاوُدَ مِنَ الْكُوَّةِ، فَذَهَبَ هَارِبًا وَنَجَا.12 So Michal let David down through a window: and he went, and fled, and escaped.
13 فَأَخَذَتْ مِيكَالُ التَّرَافِيمَ وَوَضَعَتْهُ فِي الْفِرَاشِ، وَوَضَعَتْ لُبْدَةَ الْمِعْزَى تَحْتَ رَأْسِهِ وَغَطَّتْهُ بِثَوْبٍ. 13 And Michal took an image, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster, and covered it with a cloth.
14 وَأَرْسَلَ شَاوُلُ رُسُلاً لأَخْذِ دَاوُدَ، فَقَالَتْ: «هُوَ مَرِيضٌ».14 And when Saul sent messengers to take David, she said, He is sick.
15 ثُمَّ أَرْسَلَ شَاوُلُ الرُّسُلَ لِيَرَوْا دَاوُدَ قَائِلاً: «اصْعَدُوا بِهِ إِلَيَّ عَلَى الْفِرَاشِ لِكَيْ أَقْتُلَهُ».15 And Saul sent the messengers again to see David, saying, Bring him up to me in the bed, that I may slay him.
16 فَجَاءَ الرُّسُلُ وَإِذَا فِي الْفِرَاشِ التَّرَافِيمُ وَلِبْدَةُ الْمِعْزَى تَحْتَ رَأْسِهِ.16 And when the messengers were come in, behold, there was an image in the bed, with a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster.
17 فَقَالَ شَاوُلُ لِمِيكَالَ: «لِمَاذَا خَدَعْتِنِي، فَأَطْلَقْتِ عَدُوِّي حَتَّى نَجَا؟» فَقَالَتْ مِيكَالُ لِشَاوُلَ: «هُوَ قَالَ لِي: أَطْلِقِينِي، لِمَاذَا أَقْتُلُكِ؟».17 And Saul said unto Michal, Why hast thou deceived me so, and sent away mine enemy, that he is escaped? And Michal answered Saul, He said unto me, Let me go; why should I kill thee?
18 فَهَرَبَ دَاوُدُ وَنَجَا وَجَاءَ إِلَى صَمُوئِيلَ فِي الرَّامَةِ وَأَخْبَرَهُ بِكُلِّ مَا عَمِلَ بِهِ شَاوُلُ. وَذَهَبَ هُوَ وَصَمُوئِيلُ وَأَقَامَا فِي نَايُوتَ.18 So David fled, and escaped, and came to Samuel to Ramah, and told him all that Saul had done to him. And he and Samuel went and dwelt in Naioth.
19 فَأُخْبِرَ شَاوُلُ وَقِيلَ لَهُ: «هُوَذَا دَاوُدُ فِي نَايُوتَ فِي الرَّامَةِ».19 And it was told Saul, saying, Behold, David is at Naioth in Ramah.
20 فَأَرْسَلَ شَاوُلُ رُسُلاً لأَخْذِ دَاوُدَ. وَلَمَّا رَأَوْا جَمَاعَةَ الأَنْبِيَاءِ يَتَنَبَّأُونَ، وَصَمُوئِيلَ وَاقِفًا رَئِيسًا عَلَيْهِمْ، كَانَ رُوحُ اللهِ عَلَى رُسُلِ شَاوُلَ فَتَنَبَّأُوا هُمْ أَيْضًا.20 And Saul sent messengers to take David: and when they saw the company of the prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing as appointed over them, the Spirit of God was upon the messengers of Saul, and they also prophesied.
21 وَأَخْبَرُوا شَاوُلَ، فَأَرْسَلَ رُسُلاً آخَرِينَ، فَتَنَبَّأُوا هُمْ أَيْضًا. ثُمَّ عَادَ شَاوُلُ فَأَرْسَلَ رُسُلاً ثَالِثَةً، فَتَنَبَّأُوا هُمْ أَيْضًا.21 And when it was told Saul, he sent other messengers, and they prophesied likewise. And Saul sent messengers again the third time, and they prophesied also.
22 فَذَهَبَ هُوَ أَيْضًا إِلَى الرَّامَةِ وَجَاءَ إِلَى الْبِئْرِ الْعَظِيمَةِ الَّتِي عِنْدَ سِيخُو وَسَأَلَ وَقَالَ: «أَيْنَ صَمُوئِيلُ وَدَاوُدُ؟» فَقِيلَ: «هَا هُمَا فِي نَايُوتَ فِي الرَّامَةِ».22 Then went he also to Ramah, and came to a great well that is in Sechu: and he asked and said, Where are Samuel and David? And one said, Behold, they be at Naioth in Ramah.
23 فَذَهَبَ إِلَى هُنَاكَ إِلَى نَايُوتَ فِي الرَّامَةِ، فَكَانَ عَلَيْهِ أَيْضًا رُوحُ اللهِ، فَكَانَ يَذْهَبُ وَيَتَنَبَّأُ حَتَّى جَاءَ إِلَى نَايُوتَ فِي الرَّامَةِ.23 And he went thither to Naioth in Ramah: and the Spirit of God was upon him also, and he went on, and prophesied, until he came to Naioth in Ramah.
24 فَخَلَعَ هُوَ أَيْضًا ثِيَابَهُ وَتَنَبَّأَ هُوَ أَيْضًا أَمَامَ صَمُوئِيلَ، وَانْطَرَحَ عُرْيَانًا ذلِكَ النَّهَارَ كُلَّهُ وَكُلَّ اللَّيْلِ. لِذلِكَ يَقُولُونَ: «أَشَاوُلُ أَيْضًا بَيْنَ الأَنْبِيَاءِ؟».24 And he stripped off his clothes also, and prophesied before Samuel in like manner, and lay down naked all that day and all that night. Wherefore they say, Is Saul also among the prophets?
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