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تفسير Commentary
هلال أمين
وليم ماكدونالد
وليم مارش
Matthew Henry

صموئيل الأول [24] 1Samuel
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Chapter Summary
1 وَلَمَّا رَجَعَ شَاوُلُ مِنْ وَرَاءِ الْفِلِسْطِينِيِّينَ أَخْبَرُوهُ قَائِلِينَ: «هُوَذَا دَاوُدُ فِي بَرِّيَّةِ عَيْنِ جَدْيٍ».1 And it came to pass, when Saul was returned from following the Philistines, that it was told him, saying, Behold, David is in the wilderness of Engedi.
2 فَأَخَذَ شَاوُلُ ثَلاَثَةَ آلاَفِ رَجُل مُنْتَخَبِينَ مِنْ جَمِيعِ إِسْرَائِيلَ وَذَهَبَ يَطْلُبُ دَاوُدَ وَرِجَالَهُ عَلَى صُخُورِ الْوُعُولِ.2 Then Saul took three thousand chosen men out of all Israel, and went to seek David and his men upon the rocks of the wild goats.
3 وَجَاءَ إِلَى صِيَرِ الْغَنَمِ الَّتِي فِي الطَّرِيقِ. وَكَانَ هُنَاكَ كَهْفٌ فَدَخَلَ شَاوُلُ لِكَيْ يُغَطِّيَ رِجْلَيْهِ، وَدَاوُدُ وَرِجَالُهُ كَانُوا جُلُوسًا فِي مَغَابِنِ الْكَهْفِ. 3 And he came to the sheepcotes by the way, where was a cave; and Saul went in to cover his feet: and David and his men remained in the sides of the cave.
4 فَقَالَ رِجَالُ دَاوُدَ لَهُ: «هُوَذَا الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي قَالَ لَكَ عَنْهُ الرَّبُّ: هأَنَذَا أَدْفَعُ عَدُوَّكَ لِيَدِكَ فَتَفْعَلُ بِهِ مَا يَحْسُنُ فِي عَيْنَيْكَ». فَقَامَ دَاوُدُ وَقَطَعَ طَرَفَ جُبَّةِ شَاوُلَ سِرًّا.4 And the men of David said unto him, Behold the day of which the LORD said unto thee, Behold, I will deliver thine enemy into thine hand, that thou mayest do to him as it shall seem good unto thee. Then David arose, and cut off the skirt of Saul's robe privily.
5 وَكَانَ بَعْدَ ذلِكَ أَنَّ قَلْبَ دَاوُدَ ضَرَبَهُ عَلَى قَطْعِهِ طَرَفَ جُبَّةِ شَاوُلَ،5 And it came to pass afterward, that David's heart smote him, because he had cut off Saul's skirt.
6 فَقَالَ لِرِجَالِهِ: «حَاشَا لِي مِنْ قِبَلِ الرَّبِّ أَنْ أَعْمَلَ هذَا الأَمْرَ بِسَيِّدِي، بِمَسِيحِ الرَّبِّ، فَأَمُدَّ يَدِي إِلَيْهِ، لأَنَّهُ مَسِيحُ الرَّبِّ هُوَ».6 And he said unto his men, The LORD forbid that I should do this thing unto my master, the LORD's anointed, to stretch forth mine hand against him, seeing he is the anointed of the LORD.
7 فَوَبَّخَ دَاوُدُ رِجَالَهُ بِالْكَلاَمِ، وَلَمْ يَدَعْهُمْ يَقُومُونَ عَلَى شَاوُلَ. وَأَمَّا شَاوُلُ فَقَامَ مِنَ الْكَهْفِ وَذَهَبَ فِي طَرِيقِهِ.7 So David stayed his servants with these words, and suffered them not to rise against Saul. But Saul rose up out of the cave, and went on his way.
8 ثُمَّ قَامَ دَاوُدُ بَعْدَ ذلِكَ وَخَرَجَ مِنَ الْكَهْفِ وَنَادَى وَرَاءَ شَاوُلَ قَائِلاً: «يَا سَيِّدِي الْمَلِكُ». وَلَمَّا الْتَفَتَ شَاوُلُ إِلَى وَرَائِهِ، خَرَّ دَاوُدُ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ إِلَى الأَرْضِ وَسَجَدَ.8 David also arose afterward, and went out of the cave, and cried after Saul, saying, My lord the king. And when Saul looked behind him, David stooped with his face to the earth, and bowed himself.
9 وَقَالَ دَاوُدُ لِشَاوُلَ: «لِمَاذَا تَسْمَعُ كَلاَمَ النَّاسِ الْقَائِلِينَ: هُوَذَا دَاوُدُ يَطْلُبُ أَذِيَّتَكَ؟9 And David said to Saul, Wherefore hearest thou men's words, saying, Behold, David seeketh thy hurt?
10 هُوَذَا قَدْ رَأَتْ عَيْنَاكَ الْيَوْمَ هذَا كَيْفَ دَفَعَكَ الرَّبُّ اليَومَ لِيَدِي فِي الْكَهْفِ، وَقِيلَ لِي أَنْ أَقْتُلَكَ، وَلكِنَّنِي أَشْفَقْتُ عَلَيْكَ وَقُلْتُ: لاَ أَمُدُّ يَدِي إِلَى سَيِّدِي، لأَنَّهُ مَسِيحُ الرَّبِّ هُوَ.10 Behold, this day thine eyes have seen how that the LORD had delivered thee to day into mine hand in the cave: and some bade me kill thee: but mine eye spared thee; and I said, I will not put forth mine hand against my lord; for he is the LORD's anointed.
11 فَانْظُرْ يَا أَبِي، انْظُرْ أَيْضًا طَرَفَ جُبَّتِكَ بِيَدِي. فَمِنْ قَطْعِي طَرَفَ جُبَّتِكَ وَعَدَمِ قَتْلِي إِيَّاكَ اعْلَمْ وَانْظُرْ أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ فِي يَدِي شَرٌّ وَلاَ جُرْمٌ، وَلَمْ أُخْطِئْ إِلَيْكَ، وَأَنْتَ تَصِيدُ نَفْسِي لِتَأْخُذَهَا.11 Moreover, my father, see, yea, see the skirt of thy robe in my hand: for in that I cut off the skirt of thy robe, and killed thee not, know thou and see that there is neither evil nor transgression in mine hand, and I have not sinned against thee; yet thou huntest my soul to take it.
12 يَقْضِي الرَّبُّ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكَ وَيَنْتَقِمُ لِي الرَّبُّ مِنْكَ، وَلكِنْ يَدِي لاَ تَكُونُ عَلَيْكَ.12 The LORD judge between me and thee, and the LORD avenge me of thee: but mine hand shall not be upon thee.
13 كَمَا يَقُولُ مَثَلُ الْقُدَمَاءِ: مِنَ الأَشْرَارِ يَخْرُجُ شَرٌّ. وَلكِنْ يَدِي لاَ تَكُونُ عَلَيْكَ.13 As saith the proverb of the ancients, Wickedness proceedeth from the wicked: but mine hand shall not be upon thee.
14 وَرَاءَ مَنْ خَرَجَ مَلِكُ إِسْرَائِيلَ؟ وَرَاءَ مَنْ أَنْتَ مُطَارِدٌ؟ وَرَاءَ كَلْبٍ مَيْتٍ! وَرَاءَ بُرْغُوثٍ وَاحِدٍ!14 After whom is the king of Israel come out? after whom dost thou pursue? after a dead dog, after a flea.
15 فَيَكُونُ الرَّبُّ الدَّيَّانَ وَيَقْضِي بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكَ، وَيَرَى وَيُحَاكِمُ مُحَاكَمَتِي، وَيُنْقِذُنِي مِنْ يَدِكَ».15 The LORD therefore be judge, and judge between me and thee, and see, and plead my cause, and deliver me out of thine hand.
16 فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ دَاوُدُ مِنَ التَّكَلُّمِ بِهذَا الْكَلاَمِ إِلَى شَاوُلَ، قَالَ شَاوُلُ: «أَهذَا صَوْتُكَ يَا ابْنِي دَاوُدُ؟» وَرَفَعَ شَاوُلُ صَوْتَهُ وَبَكَى.16 And it came to pass, when David had made an end of speaking these words unto Saul, that Saul said, Is this thy voice, my son David? And Saul lifted up his voice, and wept.
17 ثُمَّ قَالَ لِدَاوُدَ: «أَنْتَ أَبَرُّ مِنِّي، لأَنَّكَ جَازَيْتَنِي خَيْرًا وَأَنَا جَازَيْتُكَ شَرًّا.17 And he said to David, Thou art more righteous than I: for thou hast rewarded me good, whereas I have rewarded thee evil.
18 وَقَدْ أَظْهَرْتَ الْيَوْمَ أَنَّكَ عَمِلْتَ بِي خَيْرًا، لأَنَّ الرَّبَّ قَدْ دَفَعَنِي بِيَدِكَ وَلَمْ تَقْتُلْنِي.18 And thou hast showed this day how that thou hast dealt well with me: forasmuch as when the LORD had delivered me into thine hand, thou killedst me not.
19 فَإِذَا وَجَدَ رَجُلٌ عَدُوَّهُ، فَهَلْ يُطْلِقُهُ فِي طَرِيقِ خَيْرٍ؟ فَالرَّبُّ يُجَازِيكَ خَيْرًا عَمَّا فَعَلْتَهُ لِي الْيَوْمَ هذَا.19 For if a man find his enemy, will he let him go well away? wherefore the LORD reward thee good for that thou hast done unto me this day.
20 وَالآنَ فَإِنِّي عَلِمْتُ أَنَّكَ تَكُونُ مَلِكًا وَتَثْبُتُ بِيَدِكَ مَمْلَكَةُ إِسْرَائِيلَ.20 And now, behold, I know well that thou shalt surely be king, and that the kingdom of Israel shall be established in thine hand.
21 فَاحْلِفْ لِي الآنَ بِالرَّبِّ إِنَّكَ لاَ تَقْطَعُ نَسْلِي مِنْ بَعْدِي، وَلاَ تُبِيدُ اسْمِي مِنْ بَيْتِ أَبِي».21 Swear now therefore unto me by the LORD, that thou wilt not cut off my seed after me, and that thou wilt not destroy my name out of my father's house.
22 فَحَلَفَ دَاوُدُ لِشَاوُلَ. ثُمَّ ذَهَبَ شَاوُلُ إِلَى بَيْتِهِ، وَأَمَّا دَاوُدُ وَرِجَالُهُ فَصَعِدُوا إِلَى الْحِصْنِ.22 And David sware unto Saul. And Saul went home; but David and his men gat them up unto the hold.
مَغابِن
مفردها مغبن: مخبأ.